This standard is to be used for grading the nonsupervisory work of operating photographic equipment such as precision process cameras, scanners, and contact frames to make line, continuous tone, halftone, and color separation negatives and positives required for the preparation of lithographic printing plates. The offset photographer may also process film using tray development techniques and automatic film processing equipment. The work requires knowledge of photographic equipment operations, techniques, and processes, and a practical understanding of the relationship between offset photography and other offset work operations involved in the lithographic reproduction of single-color and multicolor materials such as manuals, handbooks, pamphlets, maps and charts, and medical atlases. Offset photographers apply knowledge and skill in the evaluation of copy; adjustment of camera and other equipment control settings; use of lenses, filters, halftone and special pattern screens, and photographic materials; selection and arrangement of lighting; determination of the type and number of exposures needed; use of photographic procedures and methods such as enlarging and reducing, dropout, dodging, compositing, vignetting, process color separation, and color correction; and film processing. The work also involves skill in mounting and registering copy, and in the use of instruments such as timers, light and light integrating meters, densitometers, dot percentage readers, and exposure computers.